省略if 的虚拟条件句。在if虚拟条件句中如果含有were, had 或should，那么 if连词可以省略，但所在句子必须构成部分倒装，即将were, had 或should 提到主语的前面。如：
1．Were I in your position , I would let him know what I thought of him.
2．Had it not been for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often.
3．Should it rain tomorrow , the crops would be saved.
含蓄虚拟语气。从句中没有if 虚拟条件句，而是通过without , but for, otherwise, or ,but 等词含蓄地把虚拟语气表达出来。如：
1．But for the efforts of the captain, the ship would have sunk with all on board.
2．Without electricity, human life would be quite different today.
3. I would have bought the book yesterday, but I didn’t have enough money with me .
4. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball , otherwise he would have scored a goal . 他在踢球之前犹豫了一会儿，否则他会踢进一球的。
1．If you had listened to me in class yesterday, you would know how to do this problem now
2．If he should come , tell him to leave a message.万一他来的话，叫他留言。
四．wish 后宾语从句中的虚拟语气。从句中常用三种动词形式表示虚拟语气：用“had+ 过去分词”表示过去未能实现的愿望；用过去式（如果谓语动词是be动词，则用were）表示现在不可能实现的愿望；用“could /would / might +动词原形”表示将来难以实现的愿望。如：
1．I wish (that) I were 10 years younger. 要是我小了10岁那该多好啊。
2．I wish you had attended my birthday party yesterday.
3．I wish I could go/ would be able to go to the moon in a spaceship one day.
五．if only后状语从句中的虚拟语气。从句中可以表达不可能或难以实现的愿望，其意义和用法几乎和wish 后宾语从句用法一样。如:
1．If only I were rich. 我多么希望我很富有。
2．If only I had listened to my parents! 要是我那时听了父母的话就好了。
3．If only the rain would stop. 要是雨停下来就好了。
六．would rather后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气。常用过去式表示宁愿某人现在或将来做某事，用“had+ 过去分词”表示宁愿某人过去做了某事。如：
1．I’d rather (that )you hadn’t told me about it. 我倒宁愿你没把这件事告诉我。
2．I’d rather you came to see me tomorrow. 我倒宁愿你明天来看我。
3．I’d rather you told the truth. 我宁愿你说实话。
七．It’s time (that) 后的定语从句中的虚拟语气。常用过去式表示虚拟语气。如：
It’s time these two countries ended their war.该是这两个国家结束战争的时候了。
八．as if/ though (似乎，仿佛)后的方式状语从句中的虚拟语气。常用三种动词形式表示虚拟语气：用“had+ 过去分词”表与过去事实相反；用过去式（如谓语动词是be动词，则用were）表与现在事实相反；用“could /would / might +动词原形”表与将来事实相反。如：
1．She talks as if she knew everything.她讲起话来仿佛每样事都懂。
2．Mrs. Black treats the boy as if he were her own child .
3．He behaves as though nothing had happened. 他一举一动仿佛什么事都没发生似的。
九．order/ command（命令）, advise/ suggest/ recommend/ propose（建议）, insist（坚持）, ask/ require/request/demand（要求）等动词后的宾语从句，以及与它们相关的其它名词性从句中的虚拟语气。常用should + 动词原形表示虚拟语气,其中的情态动词should可以省略。如：
1．He suggested that we( should ) practise speaking English as often as possible .
→He made a suggestion that we( should ) practise speaking English as often as possible .
→His suggestion was that we( should ) practise speaking English as often as possible
→It was suggested that we( should ) practise speaking English as often as possible
2．The surprised expression on his face suggested that he hadn’t expected that.
3．He insisted that he hadn’t stolen the car and that he (should) be set free at once.
十．It is / was important/ essential/ vital/ significant/ necessary / strange/ surprising等形容词后面的 that引导的主语从句中虚拟语气。常用should+ 动词原形表示虚拟语气，其中should可以省略。如：
It is strange that such a thing should happen in our school.
1.I wish I attended the lecture yesterday. ( )
2. If only I didn’t lose my watch ! ( )
3.I’d rather you don’t do anything about it for the time being. ( )
4. Would it rain tomorrow , we’d have to put off our visit to the factory. ( )
5. His advice that we will wait for Tom to come back is reasonable . ( )
6. I am glad I went over all my notes, otherwise I would fail in the exam. ( )
7.It is high time that the government will take measures to protect the rare birds. ( )
8. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it is broken. ( )
9. If Tom received six more votes last month , he would be our chairman now. ( )
10.I would buy you a nice present , but I was short of money at that time. ( )
1。attended 改为had attended 2。didn’t lose 改为hadn’t lost 3。don’t 改为didn’t
4。Would改为Should 5。will 改为should 或去掉will 6。would fail改为would have failed
7。will take 改为took 8。is broken 改为were broken 9。received 改为had received
10。would buy改为 would have bought.
1. 表示“使想起”，常见短语是remind sb. of / about sth.。如：
What he said just now reminded me of that American professor.
This reminds me what we did together during our holidays．
2. 表示“提醒”，常见短语remind sb. to do sth. ，其意思是指“提醒某人做某事 ” 。如：
Please remind me to post the letter on the way to school.
Would you please remind him that our meeting has been put off?
【扩展】1. reminder n. 提醒物. 如：
His presence was a constant reminder of what she had lost.
2. recall , call up 与remind的异同点：三词都有“想起”之意，但recall 和call up的意思是“回忆，回想起”，其主语通常是sth.，而remind的意思是“使某人想起， 提醒”，其主语通常是sb. 如：
This picture calls up/recalls my memories of childhood.这张照片使我想起了我的童年。
=This picture reminds me of my childhood.
Just now ,Mrs. Smith ________ her son ________________ to the store after school.
Music often ________ us _______ events in the past.
The song ___________ me_________ the hard days spent in the country?
The movie about overseas students _____________ memories of my life in
break down 常见用法
On our way home , our car must break down.
Your plan has broken down. What a pity! 你的计划失败了， 真遗憾！
Why did the peace talks break down？为什么和谈失败了？
3. 用作不及物动词，意思是“（身体，精神的）垮掉 ”。如：
After a long time of hard work，he almost broke down.
【扩展】 其它由break所构成的动词短语有： break up 解散，驱散，分手。break in（vi.）破门而入，打断（谈话）.break into(vt.) 破门而入， 突然……起来, 打断。break out （战争，争吵，火灾等）爆发，突然发生。break through 突破
2.Tom ________ and wept when his mother died.
3.He has just _______ with his girlfriend.
4.The Smiths had their house _______ while they were away on holiday.
if only & only if
if only 主要有两种用法。
1。 if only 用于虚拟语气中，它虽然是从属连词，但它引导的从句却能单独成句，且能表达一种不能实现或难以实现的愿望，意思是“要是……该多好” 其用法相当于I wish，但语气更强。句后用句号或感叹号皆可；另外，if only也可以引导虚拟条件状语从句。如：
If only I had taken his advice! 要是我听从了他的建议就好了!
If only the rain would stop. 要是雨停下来就好了。
If only I were as clever as you！要是我像你一样聪明该多好啊！
If only I had more money, I could buy some books.
If only you hadn’t made that noise, they would not have known we were here.
2.。if only 用于引导真实条件状语从句，意思是“只要”。如：
If only it clears up, we’ll set off. 只要天放晴，我们就出发。
He will succeed if only he does his best. 只要他尽其全力，他就会成功。
only if 用来连接条件状语从句，意思是“只有---（才）---”，而且当only if 连接条件状语从句置于句首时，主句应构成部分倒装。如：
I told him he would succeed only if he tried hard. 我告诉他，只有努力才能成功。
Only if I get a job will I have enough money to go to school.
选择if only 或only if填空。
1. __________ I had another chance.
2. _________ they were here now, we would be able to celebrate their wedding anniversary.
3. ____________a teacher has given permission is a student allowed to leave the classroom.
remind用法答案: 1.reminded , to go 2.reminds, of /about 3.reminds/ reminded , of /about
4.recalls/ recalled /calls up / called up
break down用法答案：1. break in 2.broken down 3.broken up 4. broken into
if only 与only if用法差异填空答案: 1. If only 2. If only 3. Only if